In a new exhibition, researchers have shown that the structure of a dying star is not as static as it appears, as the star’s core may be expanding and contracting over time.
The team also identified how stars may undergo extreme changes in mass and density as they burn, making them highly dynamic.
“This is a big discovery because it’s one of the most important things we’ve found about the evolution of stars,” said Dr James Bremner, a planetary scientist at the University of Leicester, UK, who led the study.
“It’s really important because it will be really useful to understand how stars grow and change.”
The study, published in the journal Nature, also revealed that stars often undergo massive changes in their density, which could help scientists predict when they will explode.
The study found that stars in the binary system around the star NGC 4796 are rotating at the rate of 2.7 times the speed of light.
This means the star is rotating at about 10 times the rate that stars orbiting Neptune rotate.
The researchers found that the core of NGC 6796 has grown to a length of about 300,000 kilometres (186,000 miles) and is now more than 2.5 times the size of our Sun.
This is because of the mass of its companion star.
As the companion star is dying, its mass and temperature are decreasing, but it is not dying as rapidly as its parent star.
The two stars are orbiting each other in the habitable zone around the young star, and the stars are close together.
“The star is still alive, but its density is decreasing,” Dr Bremners said.
“What’s happening is the star has undergone massive mass loss and this is slowing down the rate at which it spins, but also its rotation is increasing.”
The researchers believe that this mass loss is the result of the star spinning faster in a binary system.
“In binary systems, the star in each system is spinning faster than the star orbiting it,” Dr Cressey said.
However, there are some stars with much larger and more massive companion stars, which means that the star should spin faster than its companion, as well.
“There are also a number of systems where the companion is spinning at twice the speed as the main star,” Dr Atsushi Nishiyama, a researcher at the Kyoto Institute of Technology, said.
He added that in these systems, stars are much less likely to be dying as they rotate in a rotating binary.
“That means that we’re likely to see the stars slowly rotating more rapidly than the main stars in those systems,” Dr Nishiyam said.
The authors of the paper say that their findings could lead to better understanding of the dynamics of the universe.
“These new results provide important information about the nature of stars and how they evolve and change,” Dr Gao Liu, a theoretical physicist at the Institute of Physics in the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said in a statement.
“For the first time, we can look at the evolution and composition of stars from the inside out.”
The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Japanese Research Council, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, and several other institutions.